The aim of the teacher is to get his pupils as quickly as possible over the period in which each printed symbol is looked at for its shape, and arrive at the stage when the pupil looks at words and phrases, for their meaning, almost without noticing the shapes of the separate letters.
When a good reader is at work he does not look at letters, nor even at words, one by one however quickly; he takes in the meaning of two, three, or four words at a time, in a single moment. Watch carefully the eyes of a person who is reading, and it will be seen that they do not travel smoothly along the lines of print, but they move by jumps separated by very short stops. The eyes of a very good reader move quickly, taking long jumps and making very short halts (停顿); the eyes of a poor reader move more slowly, taking only short jumps and stopping longer at each halt. Sometimes, when he meets a difficulty, he even goes backwards to see again what has already been looked at once.
The teacher's task is therefore clear: it is to train his pupils to take in several words at a glance (one eye-jump') and to remove the necessity for going backwards to read something a second time.
This shows at once that letter-by-letter, or syllable-by-syllable, or word-by-word reading, with the finger pointing to the word, carefully fixing each one in turn, is wrong. It is wrong because such a method ties the pupil's eyes down to a very short jump, and the aim is to train for the long jump. Moreover, a very short jump is too short to provide any meaning or sense; and it will be found that having struggled with three or four words separately, the pupil has to look at them again, all together and in one group, in order to get the meaning of the whole phrase.
1. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the first paragraph?
A) Pupils should be trained to reach quickly the stage of reading without having to concentrate on the separate symbols.
B) Pupils should look at each printed symbol for its meaning as well as for its shape.
C) Teachers should help their pupils avoid looking at the shape of the printed symbols.
D) Teachers should tell their pupils the different stages of their study.
2. In a single moment, a good reader picks up ________.
A) several words
B) several phrases
C) several sentences
D) several lines
3. According to the passage, which of the following is FALSE?
A) The eyes of a good reader make short halts and long jumps.
B) The eyes of a bad reader take in the meaning of one word at a time.
C) The eyes of a bad reader take only short jumps.
D) The eyes of a good reader move steadily.
4. One may have to read something a second time if ________.
A) there is enough time
B) one reads too fast
C) the passage is very long
D) one reads word by word
5. The main idea of the last paragraph is that ________.
A) word-by-word reading is highly inefficient
B) the pupil's eyes should focus on groups of syllables instead of single syllables
C) pupils have to move their eyes back and forth when reading
D) finger pointing in reading helps the pupil concentrate on meaning
Television has changed the lifestyle of people in every Industrialized country in the world. In the United States, where sociologists have studied the effects, some interesting observations have been made.
Television, although not essential, has become an important part of most people's lives. It alters peoples' ways of seeing the world; in many ways, it supports and sustains(维持)modern life. Television has become a baby-sitter, an introducer of conversations, the major transmitter of culture, a keeper of tradition. Yet when what can be seen on TV in one day is critically analyzed, it becomes evident that television is not a teacher but a sustainer; the poor quality of programming does not elevate(提高)people into greater understanding, but rather maintains and encourages the life as it exists.
The primary reason for the lack of quality in American television is related to both the history of TV programming development and the economics of TV. Television in America began with the radio. Radio companies and their sponsors first experimented with television. Therefore, the close relationship which the advertisers had with radio programs became the system for American TV. Sponsors not only paid money for time within programs, but many actually produced the programs.
Thus, in American society, television is primarily concerned with reflecting and attracting society rather than experimenting with new ideas. Advertisers want to attract the largest viewing audience possible, to do so requires that the programs be entertaining rather than educational, attractive rather than challenging.
Television in America today remains, to a large extent, with the same organization and standards as it had thirty years ago. The hope for further development and true achievement toward improving society will require a change in the entire system.
6. According to the author American television is poor in quality because ________.
A) advertisers are interested in experimenting with new ideas
B) it is still at an early stage of development, compared with the radio
C) the programs have to be developed in the interests of the sponsors for economic reasons
D) it is controlled by radio companies
7. The second paragraph is mainly about ________.
A) TV as the sustainer of American life
B) TV as the major transmitter of culture
C) the educational effect of TV on society
D) the strong influence and the poor quality of American TV
8. In the author's view American TV should ________.
A) be critical but entertaining
B) be creative and educational
C) change with the development of society
D) attract as many viewers as possible
9. The author believes that television in the United States has become important to most people because ________.
A) it promotes family unity
B) it helps them develop their speaking ability
C) it affects their life in many ways
D) it challenges society
10. The author's attitude towards American television is ________.
1. A2. A3. D4. D5. A
6. C7. D8. C9. C10. A
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